نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد زبان و ادبیات فارسی ،دانشگاه قم
2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Many cultures around the world educate girls and women in a way that they find significance only in their dealings with men. Deeds and behaviors of women are defined by the first sex, i.e. man, and cultural and historical determinants are at work to implement some laws in the conscious or unconscious minds of men of all lands to resist women’s struggles to be disentangled from the norms. Simone de Beauvoir argues that all societies strive to provide some definition about women and regards them as the second sex to finally educate women to be women; however, existentialism asserts that humans’ existance is dominated by others before they come to the existential stage of “I.” As a result, each man is decayed in others’ existential quality, and this is a kind of tyranny. Also, it is emphasized that few people try to free themselves from such tyranny. Considering women’s place in resistance literature, the present research applies descriptive analysis to comparatively investigate the question of existentialism in male and female authors to discuss the way women in the selected stories are educated to be women. One can conclude that female writers have been predominantly knowingly and occasionally unknowingly displaying this issue in their stories. However, in male writers’ works, one can face a more masculine approach and writing as well as the lack of concern about this issue.